Using Integrated Pest Management in Greenhouses and Herbaceous Nurseries

James Quinn
Horticulture Extension Specialist
David Trinklein
Division of Plant Sciences
Raymond A. Cloyd
Ornamental Entomology/Integrated Pest Management
Kansas State University

For more than 30 years the U.S. Department of Agriculture has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) as a way of dealing with arthropod (insect and mite) pests in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries. IPM strategies include the use of cultural, biological and physical (or mechanical) methods as well as pesticides to manage pests. IPM relies on routine inspection, scouting and monitoring of arthropod populations followed by the use of insecticides or miticides only when pest populations are capable of causing plant damage. If the use of these pesticides is warranted, then it is important to choose those products that are less harmful to the environment and to beneficial insects and mites (Figure 1).

This publication is designed to assist greenhouse and nursery managers in selecting the appropriate pesticides to control or regulate the multitude of arthropod pests encountered in greenhouses and nurseries. The primary arthropod pests encountered in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries in both Missouri and Kansas are aphids, thrips, fungus gnats, shore flies, spider mites, mealybugs, plant bugs, whiteflies, leafhoppers, leafminers, leaf-feeding beetles and caterpillars.

Ladybird beetleFigure 1
Ladybird beetles, known for their appetite for aphids, occur naturally in Missouri but also can be introduced as biocontrol agents in greenhouses and nurseries.
 

Ways to reduce use of pesticides

Although pest control materials are generally effective in killing arthropod pests, overreliance on this control method increases the likelihood that resistance will develop in arthropod pest populations. Therefore, it is important to use cultural, physical and biological control strategies as well as using pest control materials. The following practices will reduce the use of pest control materials in greenhouses and nurseries:

  • Start the growing season with clean greenhouses and nurseries; remove weeds and all other plant material and eliminate debris, such as growing medium.
  • Maintain adequate sanitation and use proper cultural practices (watering and fertility) throughout the growing season.
  • Scout plants weekly, especially indicator plants, those that typically affected by arthropod pest problems.
  • Use colored sticky cards (yellow or blue) and visually inspect plants. Record insect and mite pest observations, such as abundance (number of pests per plant or row) and life stages (eggs, nymphs or larvae, pupae and adults).
  • Inspect transplants or propagation material carefully. Isolate newly introduced plants and inspect for any arthropod pest problems. If arthropod pests are present, then treat with an appropriate pest control material.
  • Treat only those plants directly affected by arthropod pests or localized infestations.
  • If possible, install insect screening over greenhouse openings such as ridge vents, sidewalls and intake vents. Be sure to compensate for the resulting reduction in airflow by increasing the screening surface area.

Alternative or "reduced-risk" pesticides

Use of pesticides has changed dramatically since 1985. Before that time, pesticides in three chemical classes — organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons — were relied upon to manage plant-feeding insects and mites. Use of materials in these older chemical classes was reduced somewhat with the availability of products in a fourth chemical class, pyrethroids. Since 1985, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has reevaluated the registration of older pesticides and has encouraged the development of alternative pesticides that reduce risk to human health, toxicity to nontarget organisms, and the potential for groundwater contamination. These materials are preferred for use in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries because they are

  • Less persistent (shorter residual activity) in the environment
  • Less directly harmful to natural enemies, including parasitoids and predators
  • Effective in controlling arthropod pests at reduced application rates when compared with other pesticides

In 1993, the EPA defined alternative or “reduced-risk” pesticides as those that present less risk to human health and the environment than conventional alternatives. Although EPA does not permit manufacturers to use the term “reduced-risk” on product labels, the term is commonly used in promotional and marketing materials. In addition to chemical pesticides, some reduced-risk pesticides contain microorganisms. Examples include spinosad (Conserve), abamectin (Avid), Bacillus thuringienisis spp. kurstaki (Dipel), and Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis (Gnatrol). Pesticides derived from plants, often called botanicals or plant-derived essential oils, are also available for use in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries. Examples are the clarified hydrophobic extract from neem seed (Triact) and the product GC-Mite, which contains cottonseed, clove and garlic oil.

Tables 1 and 3 list pesticides registered for use in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries. Table 2 lists those specifically designated for use in organic cropping systems. More information on reduced-risk materials (PDF) is available online at http://epa.gov/opprd001/workplan/completionsportrait.pdf.

New pesticides are generally registered more rapidly for use on ornamental plants than on food crops because they are not edible and do not require extensive food safety testing. However, registration for greenhouse-grown vegetables is usually delayed or may not occur. This may be confusing especially with regard to vegetable bedding plants. Several of the pesticides listed in Table 1 may be used on vegetable bedding plants. However, it is critical to read the label to obtain this information. Higher infestation levels of arthropod pests are more tolerable in vegetable production systems than in ornamental crops because plants such as tomatoes and cucumbers are primarily grown for fruit production, and may even be saleable if the plants exhibit damage from insect or mite pest feeding. Overall, it is important to read the product label before applying any pesticide to make sure that the insect or mite pests as well as the treatment site are designated.
 

Guidelines for implementing a biological control program

  • Scout the crop regularly to detect early infestations of arthropod pests before they reach damaging levels.
  • Order natural enemies early (at least three weeks before they are needed) and release them immediately or as soon as possible after arrival. Follow the supplier’s instruction for release.
  • Install insect screening over greenhouse openings such as ridge vents, sidewalls and air intake vents to reduce the migration of winged aphids, adult whiteflies, thrips, and leafminers into greenhouses. Be sure to compensate for any reduction in airflow by increasing the screening surface area.
  • Avoid overfertilizing plants, particularly with nitrogen-based fertilizers, because this results in the production of soft, succulent growth that is more susceptible to aphids and the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae).
  • Remove yellow sticky cards before applying parasitoids, because sticky cards can attract and capture parasitoids. Yellow sticky cards can be replaced one week after making releases.
  • Reduce the use of pesticide when bumblebees are used as pollinators, and avoid applying pest control materials with extended residual activity, such as products in the organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid chemical classes. Drenching applications of systemic insecticides to the growing medium will be less harmful than foliar applications.

Biological control

Biological control agents, or natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, can be purchased from commercial suppliers or distributors and released into greenhouses. This practice is referred to as augmentative biological control, for which there are two control strategies: inoculation and inundation. Inoculation consists of releasing small numbers of natural enemies early in the growing season or cropping cycle so that a population of natural enemies will establish and reproduce in the greenhouse, providing long-term control. Inundation is the introduction of much larger numbers of natural enemies into a greenhouse to provide control in the short term. Additional releases may be required during the growing season or cropping cycle to keep arthropod pest populations at low levels.

Consult biological control suppliers and distributors for additional information on the use of natural enemies in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries. Biological control programs tend to be more effective when crops are grown for extended periods (e.g., cut flowers and vegetables) and when environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and relative humidity) are constant. Preventive releases of natural enemies are more efficient and easier in a monoculture (e.g., single crop) cropping system when there is only one arthropod pest than in a polyculture (e.g., multiple crops) cropping systems where there may be more than three different arthropod pests. For example, in the production of spring bedding plants, various insect pests may be present simultaneously, including aphids, thrips, whiteflies and fungus gnats.

The greenhouse environment does not contain the abundance and diversity of natural enemies found in outdoor settings or nurseries. This is mainly because of the extensive use of pesticides and because natural enemies typically do not migrate into greenhouses. The survival of natural enemies in a greenhouse is influenced by the abundance and types of prey that are present. However, certain parasitoids and predators sometimes occur naturally in greenhouses. For example, parasitoids in the genus Aphidius, which prey upon many different types of aphids, can inadvertently enter greenhouses through doors, vents or sidewalls. Adult females lay eggs into aphids, and these eggs hatch into larvae that consume the internal organs of the aphids, leaving only their hardened, brown exteriors, or “aphid mummies” (Figure 2). Eventually, a new adult parasitoid creates an exit hole and emerges from the dead aphid. Minute pirate bugs, Orius spp., are predatory anthocorid bugs that feed on thrips. These black and white bugs may also enter greenhouses through openings, particularly when weeds and field crops start desiccating.

Natural enemies that may be present in outdoor nurseries include ladybird beetles, green lacewings, ground beetles, soldier beetles, assassin/ambush bugs, damsel bugs, hover (syrphid) flies, tachinid flies, predatory mites and spiders.
 

Aphidius wasp The aphid's body, which mummifies Figure 2
The Aphidius wasp, left, stings the aphid and lays an egg in the aphid's body, which mummifies, right, as the egg develops.

Marion Herbert, Alberta Research Station, Vegreville, photo
 

Table 1
Pesticides (insecticides and miticides) registered for use on ornamental plants or greenhouse-grown vegetables. (Always read the label to determine if a pesticide can be used in a particular facility and on a specific crop.)

Common name or active ingredient (Trade name)ClassMode of actionReentry intervalLabeled pestsAdditional products
abamectin
(Avid)
Macrocyclic lactoneGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) chloride channel activator [6]12 hoursspider mites, thrips, leafminers 
acephate
(Orthene/Precise)
OrganophosphateAcetylcholine esterase inhibitor [1B]24/12 hoursaphids, whiteflies, scales, mealybugs, thrips 
acequinocyl
(Shuttle)
NapththoquinoneMitochondria electron transport inhibitor [20B]12 hoursspider mites 
acetamiprid
(TriStar)
NeonicotinoidNicotinic acetylcholine receptor disruptor [4A]12 hoursaphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, scales 
azadirachtin
(Azatin/Ornazin)
Botanical (insect growth regulator)Ecdysone antagonist [18B]4/12 hoursaphids, fungus gnat larvae, thrips, whiteflies, caterpillarsAza-Direct and Neemix
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis
(Gnatrol)
MicrobialMidgut membrane disruptor [11A1]4 hoursfungus gnat larvae 
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki
(Dipel)
MicrobialMidgut membrane disruptor [11B2]4 hourscaterpillars 
Beauveria bassiana
(BotaniGard)
Microbial (entomopathogenic fungi)Direct infection of host by hyphae4 hoursaphids, mealybugs, whitefliesNaturalis and Mycotrol
bifenazate
(Floramite)
CarbazateGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) gated antagonist [25]4 hoursspider mites 
bifenthrin
(Talstar/Attain)
PyrethroidSodium channel blocker [3]12 hoursaphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat adults, mealybugs, scales, plant bugs, thrips, leafhoppers, whiteflies 
buprofezin
(Talus)
Benzoylurea (insect growth regulator)Chitin synthesis inhibitor [16]12 hourswhiteflies, mealybugs, scales and leafhoppers 
chlorfenapyr
(Pylon)
PyrroleOxidative phosphorylation uncoupler [13]12 hoursspider mites, broad mite, cyclamen mite, fungus gnat larvae, thrips 
chlorpyrifos
(DuraGuard)
OrganophosphateAcetylcholine esterase inhibitor [1B]24 hoursaphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat larvae, leafhoppers, mealybugs, shore fly larvae, thrips 
clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil
(Triact)
BotanicalSuffocation or membrane disruptor12 hoursaphids, whiteflies, spider mites, scales 
clofentezine
(Ovation)
TetrazineGrowth and embryogenesis inhibitor [10A]12 hoursspider mites 
cyfluthrin
(Decathlon/Tempo)
PyrethroidSodium channel blocker [3]12 hoursaphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat adults, mealybugs, scales, thrips, whiteflies 
cyromazine
(Citation)
Triazine (insect growth regulator)Chitin synthesis inhibitor [17]12 hoursfungus gnat larvae, shore fly larvae, leafminers 
diflubenzuron
(Adept)
Benzoylurea (insect growth regulator)Chitin synthesis inhibitor [15]12 hoursfungus gnat and shore fly larvae 
dinotefuran
(Safari)
NeonicotinoidNicotinic acetylcholine receptor disruptor [4A]12 hoursaphids, whiteflies, scales, leafminers, thrips, leafhoppers, mealybugs 
etoxazole
(TetraSan)
Diphenyloxizoline derivative (mite growth regulator)Chitin synthesis inhibitor [10B]12 hoursspider mites 
fenbutatin-oxide
(ProMite)
OrganotinOxidative phosphorylation inhibitor [12B]48 hoursspider mites 
fenoxycarb
(Preclude)
Carbamate (insect growth regulator)Juvenile hormone mimic [7B]12 hoursaphids, caterpillars, leafminers, mealybugs, scales, thrips, whiteflies 
fenpropathrin
(Tame)
PyrethroidSodium channel blocker [3]24 hourscaterpillars, fungus gnat adults, mealybugs, whiteflies 
fenpyroximate
(Akari)
PhenoxypyrazoleMitochondria electron transport inhibitor [21]12 hoursspider mites 
flonicamid
(Aria)
Trifluoromethyl­nicotinamideSelective feeding blocker [9C]12 hoursaphids, thrips, whiteflies 
fluvalinate
(Mavrik)
PyrethroidSodium channel blocker [3]12 hoursaphids, fungus gnat adults, thrips, leafhoppers, caterpillars, plant bugs, whiteflies 
hexythiazox
(Hexygon)
CarboxamideGrowth and embryogenesis inhibitor [10A]12 hoursspider mites 
imidacloprid
(Marathon/Merit)
NeonicotinoidNicotinic acetylcholine receptor disruptor [4A]12 hoursaphids, whiteflies, scales, mealybugsAdmire, Benefit, Mantra
kinoprene
(Enstar II)
Insect growth regulatorJuvenile hormone mimic [7A]4 hoursaphids, fungus gnat larvae, mealybugs, scales, thrips, whiteflies 
methiocarb
(Mesurol)
CarbamateAcetylcholine esterase inhibitor [1A]24 hoursaphids, thrips, snails/slugs 
milbemectin
(Ultiflora)
Macrocyclic lactoneGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) chloride channel activator [6]12 hoursspider mites 
novaluron
(Pedestal)
Benzoylurea (insect growth regulator)Chitin synthesis inhibitor [15]12 hoursthrips, whiteflies, caterpillars, leafminers 
paraffinic oil
(Ultra-Fine Oil)
Refined petroleum distillateSuffocation or membrane disruptor4 hoursaphids, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies 
petroleum oil
(PureSpray Green)
Refined petroleum distillateSuffocation or membrane disruptor4 hoursaphids, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies 
potassium salts of fatty acids
(insecticidal soap/M-Pede)
Insecticidal soapDesiccation or membrane disruptor12 hoursaphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat adults, leafhoppers, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies 
pymetrozine
(Endeavor)
Pyridine (Azomethine)Selective feeding blocker [9B]12 hoursaphids and whiteflies 
pyridaben
(Sanmite)
PyridazinoneMitochondria electron transport inhibitor [21]12 hoursspider mites and whiteflies 
pyriproxyfen
(Distance)
Pyridine (insect growth regulator)Juvenile hormone mimic [7C]12 hoursfungus gnat and shore fly larvae, scales, whiteflies 
pyrethrin
(Pyganic)
BotanicalSodium channel blocker [3]12 hoursaphids, caterpillars, beetles, mealybugs, thrips, whitefliesPyreth-It and Pyrethrum
pyrethrin and silicon dioxide
(Diatect V)
BotanicalCentral nervous system disruptor and desiccant [3]12 hoursaphids, caterpillars, whiteflies 
spinosad
(Conserve/Entrust)
SpinosynNicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist [5]4 hourscaterpillars, thrips, leafminers 
spiromesifen
(Judo)
Tetronic acidLipid biosynthesis inhibitor [23]12 hoursspider mites, broad mite, whiteflies 
Steinernema feltiae
(Nemasys)
Biological control (entomopathogenic nematode)Penetrant through insect cuticle and degrades internal contents0 hoursfungus gnat larvaeNemaShield, Scanmask, Entonem
thiamethoxam
(Flagship)
NeonicotinoidNicotinic acetylcholine receptor disruptor [4A]12 hoursaphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, scales 

Note
Numbers and letters in brackets [xx] indicate the IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) mode of action designation found on the label.

Table 2
Pesticides (insecticides and miticides) registered for use in organic production systems (ornamental plants, vegetables and herbs).

Common name or active ingredient (Trade name)ClassMode of actionReentry intervalLabeled pests
azadirachtin
(Azatrol/Neemix)
Botanical (insect growth regulator)Ecdysone antagonist [18B]4/12 hoursaphids, fungus gnat larvae, thrips, whiteflies, caterpillars
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis
(Gnatrol)
MicrobialMidgut membrane disruptor [11A1]4 hoursfungus gnat larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki
(Dipel)
MicrobialMidgut membrane disruptor [11B2]4 hourscaterpillars
clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil
(Triact)
BotanicalSuffocation or membrane disruptor12 hoursaphids, whiteflies, spider mites, scales
horticultural oils: petroleum oils (PureSpray Green), plant-based oils (GC-Mite/Golden Pest Spray Oil), fish-based oils
(Organocide)
Refined petroleum distillate and botanicalSuffocation or membrane disruptor (some products have multiple modes of action; refer to label).4 hoursaphids, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies
kaolin clay
(Surround)
ProtectantMultiple modes of action (refer to label)4 hourscaterpillars, beetles, tarnished plant bug, stink bug, thrips
potassium salts of fatty acids
(insecticidal soap/M-Pede)
Insecticidal soapDesiccation or membrane disruptor12 hoursaphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat adults, leafhoppers, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies
pyrethrin
(Pyganic)
BotanicalSodium channel blocker [3]12 hoursaphids, caterpillars, beetles, mealybugs, thrips, whiteflies
spinosad
(Entrust)
SpinosynNicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist and GABA chloride channel activator [5]4 hourscaterpillars, thrips, leafminers

Note
Numbers and letters in brackets [xx] indicate the IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) mode of action designation found on the label.

More information about the National Organic Program, online at http://usda.gov/wps/portal/!ut/_s.7_0_A/7_0_1OB?navid=ORGANIC_CERTIFICATIO&navtype=RT&parentnav=AGRICULTURE

Biological control suppliers

Sources of biological control agents are listed in the publication Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in North America by Charles Hunter, which is available from the California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) online at http://cdpr.ca.gov/docs/pestmgt/ipminov/bensuppl.htm or from reputable suppliers.

Be sure to consult your biological control supplier to determine the availability and shipping requirements for the natural enemy species you are interested in.

Table 3
Common greenhouse and nursery pests and pesticides registered for their control. (Always read the label to determine if a pesticide can be used in a particular facility and on a specific crop.)

PestCommon nameTrade name
aphidsacephateOrthene/Precise
 acetamipridTriStar
 azadirachtinAzatin/Ornazin
 Beauveria bassianaBotaniGard
 bifenthrinTalstar/Attain
 chlorpyrifosDuraguard
 cyfluthrinDecathalon/Tempo
 dinotefuranSafari
 fenoxycarbPreclude
 fenpropathrinTame
 flonicamidAria
 fluvalinateMavrik
 imidaclopridMarathon/Merit
 kinopreneEnstar II
 methiocarbMesurol
 neem oil extractTriact
 paraffinic oilUltra-Fine oil
 petroleum oilPureSpray Green
 potassium salts of fatty acidsInsecticidal soap/M-Pede
 pymetrozineEndeavor
 pyrethrinPyganic
 pyrethrin and silicon dioxideDiatect V
 thiamethoxamFlagship
beetlespyrethrinPyganic
caterpillarsazadirachtinAzatin/Ornazin
 Bt spp. kurstakiDipel
 bifenthrinTalstar/Attain
 cyfluthrinDecathalon/Tempo
 fenoxycarbPreclude
 fenpropathrinTame
 fenpyroximateAkari
 fluvalinateMavrik
 novaluronPedestal
 potassium salts of fatty acidsInsecticidal soap/M-Pede
 pyrethrinPyganic
 pyrethrin and silicon dioxideDiatect V
 spinosadConserve/Entrust
fungus gnat  
  adultbifenthrinTalstar/Attain
 cyfluthrinDecathalon/Tempo
 fenpropathrinTame
 fluvalinateMavrik
 potassium salts of fatty acidsInsecticidal soap/M-Pede
  larvaeazadirachtinAzatin/Ornazin
 Bt spp. israelensisGnatrol
 chlorfenapyrPylon
 chlorpyrifosDuragard
 cyromazineCitation
 diflubenzuronAdept
 kinopreneEnstar II
 pyriproxyfenDistance
 Steinernema feltiaeNemasys
leaf hoppersbifenthrinTalstar/Attain
 buprofezinTalus
 chlorpyrifosDuraguard
 dinotefuranSafari
 fluvalinateMavrik
 

potassium salts of fatty acids

Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
leaf minersabamectinAvid
 cyromazineCitation
 dinotefuranSafari
 fenoxycarbPreclude
 spinosadConserve/Entrust
mealybugsacephateOrthene/Precise
 acetamipridTriStar
 Beauveria bassianaBotaniGard
 bifenthrinTalstar/Attain
 chlorpyrifosDuraguard
 cyfluthrinDecathalon/Tempo
 fenoxycarbPreclude
 fenpropathrinTame
 imidaclopridMarathon/Merit
 kinopreneEnstar II
 paraffinic oilUltra-Fine oil
 petroleum oilPureSpray Green
 potassium salts of fatty acidsInsecticidal soap/M-Pede
 pyrethrinPyganic
 thiamethoxamFlagship
mites  
  broad mitechlorfenapyrPylon
 spiromesifenJudo
  cyclamen mitechlorfenapyrPylon
  spider miteabamectinAvid
 acequinocylShuttle
 bifenazateFloramite
 chlorfenapyrPylon
 clofentezineOvation
 etoxazoleTetraSan
 fenbutatin-oxideProMite
 fenpyroximateAkari
 hexythiazoxHexagon
 milbemectinUltraflora
 neem oil extractTriact
 paraffinic oilUltra-Fine oil
 

petroleum oil

PureSpray Green
 

potassium salts of fatty acids

Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
 pyridabenSanmite
 spiromesifenJudo
plant bugsbifenthrinTalstar/Attain
 fluvalinateMavrik
scalesacephateOrthene/Precise
 acetamipridTriStar
 bifenthrinTalstar/Attain
 neem oil extractTriact
 cyfluthrinDecathalon/Tempo
 fenoxycarbPreclude
 imidaclopridMarathon/Merit
 kinopreneEnstar II
 paraffinic oilUltra-Fine oil
 petroleum oilPureSpray Green
 potassium salts of fatty acidsInsecticidal soap/M-Pede
 pyriproxfenDistance
 thiamethoxamFlagship
shore fly larvaecyromazineCitation
 diflubenzuronAdept
 pyriproxfenDistance
slugs/snailsmethiocarbMesurol
thripsabamectinAvid
 acephateOrthene/Precise
 azadirachtinAzatin/Ornazin
 bifenthrinTalstar/Attain
 chlorfenapyrPylon
 chlorpyrifosDuraguard
 cyfluthrinDecathalon/Tempo
 fenoxycarbPreclude
 flonicamidAria
 

fluvalinate

Mavrik
 kinopreneEnstar II
 methiocarbMesurol
 

novaluron

Pedestal
 pyrethrinPyganic
 spinosadConserve/Entrust
whiteflies acephateOrthene/Precise
 acetamipridTriStar
 azadirachtinAzatin/Ornazin
 Beauveria bassianaBotaniGard
 bifenthrinTalstar/Attain
 neem oil extractTriact
 cyfluthrinDecathalon/Tempo
 fenoxycarbPreclude
 fenpropathrinTame
 flonicamidAria
 fluvalinateMavrik
 imidaclopridMarathon/Merit
 kinopreneEnstar II
 novaluronPedestal
 paraffinic oilUltra-Fine oil
 petroleum oilPureSpray Green
 potassium salts of fatty acidsInsecticidal soap/M-Pede
 pymetrozineEndeavor
 pyridabenSanmite
 pyriproxfenDistance
 pyrethrinPyganic
 pyrethrin and silicon dioxideDiatect V
 spiromesifenJudo
 thiamethoxamFlagship

Further information

  • Albajes, R., M. L. Gullino, J. C. van Lenteren, and Y. Elad (eds.). 1999. Integrated pest and disease management in greenhouse crops. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
  • Bennett, K. C (ed.). 2009. Pest management guide for the production and maintenance of herbaceous perennials. Cornell University, Cooperative Extension, Ithaca, N.Y.
  • Cloyd, R. A. 2007. Plant protection: Managing greenhouse insect and mite pests. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Dreistadt, S. H. 2001. Integrated pest management for floriculture and nurseries. University of California, Statewide Integrated Pest Management Project, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3402. Oakland, Calif.
  • Gill, S., R. A. Cloyd, J. R. Baker, D. L. Clement, and E. Dutky. 2006. Pests and diseases of herbaceous perennials: The biological approach. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Gill, S., and J. Sanderson. 1998. Ball identification guide to greenhouse pests and beneficials. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Heinz, K. M., R. G. Van Driesche, and M. P. Parrella (eds.). 2004. Biocontrol in protected culture. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Helyer, N., K. Brown, and N. D. Cattlin. 2003. A color handbook of biological control in plant protection. Timber Press, Portland, Ore.
  • Hofer, S. E., and D. H. Headrick. 2001. The bug cards: Greenhouse beneficials. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Krischik, V., and J. Davidson (eds.). 2004. IPM (integrated pest management) of Midwest landscapes. Cooperative Project of NCR-193, North Central Committee on Landscape IPM, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station SB-07645.
  • Lindquist, R. K., and R. A. Cloyd. 2005. Identification of insects and related pests of horticultural plants. Ohio Floriculture Association Services, Inc., Columbus, Ohio.
  • Rice Mahr, S. E., R. A. Cloyd, D. L. Mahr, and C. S. Sadof. 2001. Biological control of insects and other pests of greenhouse crops. North Central Regional Publication 581. Cooperative Extension of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
  • Thomas, C. 2005. Greenhouse IPM with an emphasis on biocontrols. Publication AGRS-96. Pennsylvania Integrated Pest Management Program, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.