Nutrient Requirements of Chickens and Turkeys

Jeffre D. Firman
Department of Animal Sciences

Tables from Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, eighth revised edition, 1984, National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418. Estimated values are indicated in bold to distinguish them from the established requirements shown in Roman type.

Conversion chart

  • 454 grams per pound
  • 1,000 grams per kilogram
  • 2.2 pounds per kilogram

Tables

  1. Body weights and feed requirements of broilers
  2. Nutrient requirements of leghorn-type chickens as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet
  3. Body weights and feed requirements of leghorn-type pullets and hens
  4. Nutrient requirements of broilers as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet
  5. Nutrient requirements of turkeys as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of feed
  6. Growth rate, feed and energy consumption of large-type turkeys

Table 1
Body weights and feed requirements of broilers
Typical for broilers fed well-balanced diets containing 3,200 ME kcal per kilogram

AgeBody weightsWeekly feed consumptionCumulative feed consumptionWeekly energy consumption per birdCumulative energy consumption per bird
MFMFMFMFMF
1 week130 grams120 grams120 grams110 grams120 grams110 grams385 ME kcal350 ME kcal385 ME kcal350 ME kcal
2 weeks320 grams300 grams260 grams240 grams380 grams350 grams830 ME kcal770 ME kcal1,215 ME kcal1,120 ME kcal
3 weeks560 grams515 grams390 grams355 grams770 grams705 grams1,250 ME kcal1,135 ME kcal2,465 ME kcal2,255 ME kcal
4 weeks860 grams790 grams535 grams500 grams1,305 grams1,205 grams1,710 ME kcal1,600 ME kcal4,175 ME kcal3,855 ME kcal
5 weeks1,250 grams1,110 grams740 grams645 grams2,045 grams1,850 grams2,370 ME kcal2,065 ME kcal6,545 ME kcal5,920 ME kcal
6 weeks1,690 grams1,430 grams980 grams800 grams3,0252,650 grams3,135 ME kcal2,560 ME kcal9,680 ME kcal8,480 ME kcal
7 weeks2,100 grams1,745 grams1,095 grams910 grams4,120 grams3,560 grams3,505 ME kcal2,910 ME kcal13,185 ME kcal11,390 ME kcal
8 weeks2,520 grams2,060 grams1,210 grams970 grams5,330 grams4,530 grams3,870 ME kcal3,105 ME kcal17,055 ME kcal14,495 ME kcal
9 weeks2,925 grams2,350 grams1,320 grams1,010 grams6,650 grams5,540 grams4,225 ME kcal3,230 ME kcal21,280 ME kcal17,725 ME kcal

Table 2
Nutrient requirements of leghorn-type chickens as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet

Energy base kcal ME per kilogram diet*Growing 0 to 6 weeks
2,900
Growing 6 to 14 weeks
2,900
Growing 14 to 20 weeks
2,900
Laying
2,900
Laying, daily intake per hen**Breeding
2,900
Protein (percent)18151214.516,000 milligrams14.5
Arginine (percent)1.000.830.670.68750 milligrams0.68
Glycine and serine (percent)0.700.580.470.50550 milligrams0.50
Histidine (percent)0.260.220.170.16180 milligrams0.16
Isoleucine (percent)0.600.500.400.50550 milligrams0.50
Leucine (percent)1.000.830.670.73800 milligrams0.73
Lysine (percent)0.850.600.450.64700 milligrams0.64
Methionine + cystine (percent)0.600.500.400.55600 milligrams0.55
Methionine (percent)0.300.250.200.32350 milligrams0.32
Phenylalanine + tyrosine (percent)1.000.830.670.80880 milligrams0.80
Phenylalanine (percent)0.540.450.360.40440 milligrams0.40
Threonine (percent)0.680.570.370.45500 milligrams0.45
Tryptophan (percent)0.170.140.110.14150 milligrams0.14
Valine (percent)0.620.520.410.55600 milligrams0.55
Linoleic acid (percent)1.001.001.001.001,100 milligrams1.00
Calcium (percent)0.800.700.603.403,750 milligrams3.40
Phosphorus, available (percent)0.400.350.300.32350 milligrams0.32
Potassium (percent)0.400.300.250.15165 milligrams0.15
Sodium (percent)0.150.150.150.15165 milligrams0.15
Chlorine (percent)0.150.120.120.15165 milligrams0.15
Magnesium (mg)60050040050055 milligrams500
Manganese (mg)603030303.30 milligrams60
Zinc (mg)403535505.50 milligrams65
Iron (mg)806060505.50 milligrams60
Copper (mg)86660.88 milligrams8
Iodine (mg)0.350.350.350.300.03 milligrams0.30
Selenium (mg)0.150.100.100.100.01 milligrams0.10
Vitamin A (IU)1,5001,5001,5004,000440 milligrams4,000
Vitamin D (ICU)20020020050055 milligrams500
Vitamin E (IU)105550.55 milligrams10
Vitamin K (mg)0.500.500.500.500.055 milligrams0.50
Riboflavin (mg)3.601.801.802.200.242 milligrams3.80
Pantothenic acid (mg)10.010.010.02.200.242 milligrams10.0
Niacin (mg)27.011.011.010.01.10 milligrams10.0
Vitamin B12 (mg)0.0090.0030.0030.0040.00044 milligrams0.004
Choline (mg)1,300900500?? milligrams?
Biotin (mg)0.150.100.100.100.011 milligrams0.15
Folacin (mg)0.550.250.250.250.0275 milligrams0.35
Thiamin (mg)1.81.31.30.800.088 milligrams0.80
Pyridoxine (mg)3.03.03.03.00.33 milligrams4.50
*These are typical dietary energy concentrations.
**Assumes an average daily intake of 110 grams of feed per hen daily.

Table 3
Body weights and feed requirements of leghorn-type pullets and hens

AgeBody weight***Feed consumption per week****Typical egg production (hen-day percent)
0 weeks35 grams45 grams 
2 weeks135 grams90 grams 
4 weeks270 grams180 grams 
6 weeks450 grams260 grams 
8 weeks620 grams325 grams 
10 weeks790 grams385 grams 
12 weeks950 grams430 grams 
14 weeks1,060 grams460 grams 
16 weeks1,160 grams460 grams 
18 weeks1,260 grams460 grams 
20 weeks1,360 grams460 grams 
22 weeks1,425 grams525 grams10
24 weeks1,500 grams595 grams38
26 weeks1,575 grams665 grams64
30 weeks1,725 grams770 grams88
40 weeks1,815 grams770 grams80
50 weeks1,870 grams765 grams74
60 weeks1,900 grams755 grams68
70 weeks1,900 grams740 grams62
***Pullets and hens of Leghorn-type strains are generally fed ad libitum but are occasionally control-fed to limit body weights. Values shown are typical but will vary with strain differences, season and lighting. Specific breeder guidelines should be consulted for desired schedules of weights and feed consumption.
****Based on diets containing 2,900 ME kcal per kilogram, consumption will vary depending upon the caloric density of the diet, environmental temperature and rate of production.

Table 4
Nutrient requirements of broilers as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet

Energy base ME kcal per kilogram diet*****Weeks 0 to 3
3,200
Weeks 3 to 6
3,200
Weeks 6 to 8
3,200
Protein (percent)23.020.018.0
Arginine (percent)1.441.201.00
Glycine + Serine (percent)1.501.000.70
Histidine (percent)0.350.300.26
Isoleucine (percent)0.800.700.60
Leucine (percent)1.351.181.00
Lysine (percent)1.201.000.85
Methionine + Cystine (percent)0.930.720.60
Methionine (percent)0.500.380.32
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine (percent)1.341.171.00
Phenylalanine (percent)0.720.630.54
Threonine (percent)0.800.740.68
Tryptophan (percent)0.230.180.17
Valine (percent)0.820.720.62
Linoleic acid (percent)1.001.001.00
Calcium (percent)1.000.900.80
Phosphorus, available (percent)0.450.400.35
Potassium (percent)0.400.350.30
Sodium (percent)0.150.150.15
Chlorine (percent)0.150.150.15
Magnesium (mg)600600600
Manganese (mg)60.060.060.0
Zinc (mg)40.040.040.0
Iron (mg)80.080.080.0
Copper (mg)8.08.08.0
Iodine (mg)0.350.350.35
Selenium (mg)0.150.150.15
Vitamin A (IU)1,5001,5001,500
Vitamin D (ICU)200200200
Vitamin E (IU)101010
Vitamin K (mg)0.500.500.50
Riboflavin (mg)3.603.603.60
Pantothenic acid (mg)10.010.010.0
Niacin (mg)27.027.011.0
Vitamin B12 (mg)0.0090.0090.003
Choline (mg)1,300850500
Biotin (mg)0.150.150.10
Folacin (mg)0.550.550.25
Thiamin (mg)1.801.801.80
Pyridoxine (mg)3.03.02.5
*****These are typical dietary energy concentrations.

Table 5
Nutrient requirements of turkeys as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of feed

Energy base ME kcal per kilogram diet******Age (weeks)
M: 0 to 4,
F: 0 to 4
2,800
M: 4 to 8,
F: 4 to 8
2,900
M: 8 to 12,
F: 8 to 11
3,000
M: 12 to 16,
F: 11 to 14
3,100
M: 16 to 20,
F: 14 to 17
3,200
M: 20 to 24,
F: 17 to 20
3,300
Holding
2,900
Breeding hens
2,900
Protein (percent)2826221916.5141214
Arginine (percent)1.61.51.251.10.950.80.60.6
Glycine + serine (percent)1.00.90.80.70.60.50.40.5
Histidine (percent)0.580.540.460.390.350.290.250.3
Isoleucine (percent)1.11.00.850.750.650.550.450.5
Leucine (percent)1.91.751.51.31.10.950.50.5
Lysine1.61.51.31.00.80.650.50.6
Methionine +cystine (percent)1.050.90.750.650.550.450.40.4
Methionine (percent)0.530.450.380.330.280.230.20.2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine (percent)1.81.651.41.21.050.90.81.0
Phenylalanine (percent)1.00.90.80.70.60.50.40.55
Threonine (percent)1.00.930.790.680.590.50.40.45
Tryptophan (percent)0.260.240.20.180.150.130.10.13
Valine (percent)1.21.10.940.80.70.60.50.58
Linoleic acid (percent)1.01.00.80.80.80.80.81.0
Calcium (percent)1.21.00.850.750.650.550.52.25
Phosphorus, available (percent)0.60.50.420.380.320.280.250.35
Potassium (percent)0.70.60.50.50.40.40.40.6
Sodium (percent)0.170.150.120.120.120.120.120.15
Chlorine (percent)0.150.140.140.120.120.120.120.12
Magnesium (mg)600600600600600600600600
Manganese (mg)6060606060606060
Zinc (mg)7565504040404065
Iron (mg)8060606050505060
Copper (mg)88666668
Iodine (mg)0.40.40.40.40.40.40.40.4
Selenium (mg)0.20.20.20.20.20.20.20.2
Vitamin A (IU)4,0004,0004,0004,0004,0004,0004,0004,000
Vitamin D (ICU)*******900900900900900900900900
Vitamin E (IU)1212101010101025
Vitamin K (mg)1.01.00.80.80.80.80.81.0
Riboflavin (mg)3.63.63.03.02.52.52.54.0
Pantothenic acid (mg)11.011.09.09.09.09.09.016.0
Niacin (mg)70.070.050.050.040.040.040.030.0
Vitamin B12 (mg)0.0030.0030.0030.0030.0030.0030.0030.003
Choline (mg)1,9001,6001,3001,1009508008001,000
Biotin (mg)0.20.20.150.1250.1000.1000.1000.15
Folacin (mg)1.01.00.80.80.70.70.71.0
Thiamin (mg)2.02.02.02.02.02.02.02.0
Pyridoxine (mg)4.54.53.53.53.03.03.04.0
******These are typical ME concentrations for corn-soy diets. Different ME values may be appropriate if other ingredients predominate.
*******These concentrations of vitamin D are satisfactory when the dietary concentrations of calcium and available phosphorus conform with those in this table.

Table 6
Growth rate, feed and energy consumption of large-type turkeys

AgeBody weightBody weightFeed consumption per weekCumulative feed consumptionME consumption per week
(kg): M(kg): F(kg): M(kg): F(kg): M(kg): F(Mcal): M(Mcal): F
1 weeks0.110.110.100.100.100.100.300.30
2 weeks0.270.240.200.170.300.270.600.50
3 weeks0.580.470.450.390.750.661.10.80
4 weeks1.00.700.610.461.361.121.71.2
5 weeks1.51.10.700.602.061.722.31.6
6 weeks2.01.60.860.762.922.482.92.1
7 weeks2.62.11.080.894.003.373.52.6
8 weeks3.32.61.301.045.304.414.13.1
9 weeks4.03.11.511.186.815.594.83.6
10 weeks4.73.71.781.348.596.935.24.1
11 weeks5.54.31.991.4710.588.405.74.6
12 weeks6.34.82.251.5912.839.996.35.1
13 weeks7.15.32.511.7015.3411.697.15.5
14 weeks8.05.82.661.7518.0013.447.85.8
15 weeks8.86.32.891.8220.8915.268.46.1
16 weeks9.76.73.051.9223.9417.188.86.4
17 weeks10.57.13.132.0327.0319.219.66.7
18 weeks11.37.53.272.0730.3421.2810.26.9
19 weeks12.17.83.432.1533.7723.4310.97.1
20 weeks12.88.13.602.2337.3725.6611.67.3
21 weeks13.5 3.71 41.08 12.5 
22 weeks14.2 3.82 44.90 12.9 
23 weeks14.8 3.94 48.84 13.2 
24 weeks15.4 4.05 52.89 13.5