Tables for Weights and Measurements: Crops

William J. Murphy
Department of Agronomy

These tables give weights per bushel, weights of grain by volume, moisture conversion and planting rates.

Table 1
Weights per bushel

  • Alfalfa
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Barley
    48 pounds per bushel
  • Clover, Alsike
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Clover, Crimson
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Clover, Ladino
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Clover, White
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Clover, Red
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Clover Sweet
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Corn, shelled
    56 pounds per bushel
  • Corn, ear
    70 pounds per bushel
  • Cotton
    32 pounds per bushel
  • Cowpeas
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Flax
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Grass, Brome (smooth)
    14 pounds per bushel
  • Grass, Blue
    14 pounds per bushel
  • Grass, Fescue (tall)
    14 pounds per bushel
  • Grass, Orchard
    14 pounds per bushel
  • Grass, Redtop
    14 pounds per bushel
  • Grass, Timothy
    45 pounds per bushel
  • Lespedeza
    40 to 50 pounds per bushel
  • Millet
    50 pounds per bushel
  • Oats
    32 pounds per bushel
  • Rape
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Rye
    56 pounds per bushel
  • Sorghum, forage
    50 pounds per bushel
  • Sorghum, grain
    56 pounds per bushel
  • Soybeans
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Sudan grass
    28 pounds per bushel
  • Sunflower (oil type)
    24-32 pounds per bushel
  • Trefoil, Birdsfoot
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Vetch
    60 pounds per bushel
  • Wheat
    60 pounds per bushel

Table 2
Calculating approximate weight of grain by volume

Standard bushel weightPounds per cubic feet
60 pounds48.18
56 pounds44.97
50 pounds40.15
48 pounds38.54
45 pounds36.14
28 pounds22.48
14 pounds11.24
70 pounds (ear corn)28.001
1 Varies greatly with ear size and moisture content.

Measuring cubic feet

Width in feet multiplied by length in feet multiplied by depth of grain in feet equals cubic feet in square or rectangular enclosures.

Example

10 feet width x 14 feet length x 9 feet grain depth = 1,260 cu. feet

In circular bins, the formula is: pi (3.14) multiplied by the radius squared, multiplied by the depth of grain = cubic feet.

Obtaining total grain weight

Multiply cubic feet of volume by the appropriate figure from Table 2 under pounds per cubic feet.

If actual bushel weight (test weight) is available, multiply actual bushel weight by 0.803. This calculation will give a more accurate figure for pounds per cubic feet than you can get from the table.

Table 3
Moisture conversion for ear and shelled corn

Moisture in grainHarvest weight of ear corn to yield 56 pounds of shelled corn at 15.5 percent moisture1Shelled corn equivalent to 56 pounds of shelled corn at 15.5 percent moisture
10 percent63.49 pounds52.56 pounds
10.5 percent63.86 pounds52.87 pounds
11 percent64.25 pounds53.16 pounds
11.5 percent64.65 pounds53.46 pounds
12 percent65.06 pounds53.77 pounds
12.5 percent65.60 pounds54.08 pounds
13 percent65.95 pounds54.39 pounds
13.5 percent66.42 pounds54.70 pounds
14 percent66.89 pounds55.02 pounds
14.5 percent67.39 pounds55.34 pounds
15 percent67.89 pounds55.67 pounds
15.5 percent68.40 pounds56.00 pounds
16 percent68.94 pounds56.33 pounds
16.5 percent69.51 pounds56.67 pounds
17 percent70.09 pounds57.01 pounds
17.5 percent70.69 pounds57.35 pounds
18 percent71.31 pounds57.70 pounds
18.5 percent71.95 pounds58.06 pounds
19 percent72.60 pounds58.41 pounds
19.5 percent73.27 pounds58.78 pounds
20 percent73.96 pounds59.15 pounds
20.5 percent74.60 pounds59.52 pounds
21 percent75.36 pounds59.89 pounds
21.5 percent76.07 pounds60.28 pounds
22 percent76.79 pounds60.66 pounds
22.5 percent77.53 pounds61.05 pounds
23 percent78.25 pounds61.45 pounds
23.5 percent79.01 pounds61.85 pounds
24 percent79.76 pounds62.26 pounds
24.5 percent80.50 pounds62.67 pounds
25 percent81.25 pounds63.09 pounds
25.5 percent82.03 pounds63.51 pounds
26 percent82.82 pounds63.94 pounds
26.5 percent83.50 pounds64.38 pounds
27 percent84.19 pounds64.82 pounds
27.5 percent84.90 pounds65.26 pounds
28 percent85.62 pounds65.72 pounds
28.5 percent86.32 pounds66.18 pounds
29 percent87.04 pounds66.64 pounds
29.5 percent87.76 pounds67.12 pounds
30 percent88.50 pounds67.60 pounds
30.5 percent89.22 pounds68.08 pounds
31 percent89.94 pounds68.57 pounds
31.5 percent90.67 pounds69.08 pounds
32 percent91.43 pounds69.58 pounds
32.5 percent92.13 pounds70.10 pounds
33 percent92.85 pounds70.62 pounds
33.5 percent93.55 pounds71.15 pounds
34 percent94.28 pounds71.69 pounds
34.5 percent94.98 pounds72.24 pounds
35 percent95.71 pounds72.80 pounds
1Ear corn values supplied by Dr. Marcus Zuber, MU Agronomy Department. Ear corn values apply with greatest accuracy at harvest because differences in cob and grain moisture will change in storage. Shelled corn figures apply at any time.

Obtaining bushels of grain

Divide total grain weight by appropriate standard bushel weight.

Obtaining number of hundredweights (cwts) of grain

Divide total grain weight by 100.

Table 4
Moisture conversion for soybeans

Moisture in grainSoybeans equivalent to 60 pounds of Soybeans at 13.0 percent Moisture
10 percent58.00 pounds
11 percent58.65 pounds
12 percent59.32 pounds
13 percent60.00 pounds
14 percent60.70 pounds
15 percent61.41 pounds
16 percent62.14 pounds
17 percent62.89 pounds
18 percent63.66 pounds
19 percent64.44 pounds
20 percent65.25 pounds
21 percent66.08 pounds
22 percent66.92 pounds
23 percent67.79 pounds
24 percent68.68 pounds
25 percent69.60 pounds
26 percent70.54 pounds
27 percent71.51 pounds
28 percent72.50 pounds
29 percent73.52 pounds
30 percent74.57 pounds

Table 5
Moisture conversion for wheat

Moisture in grainWheat equivalent to 60 pounds of wheat at 13.5 percent moisture
10 percent57.67 pounds
11 percent58.65 pounds
12 percent59.32 pounds
13 percent59.66 pounds
13.5 percent60.00 pounds
14 percent60.35 pounds
15 percent61.06 pounds
16 percent61.79 pounds
17 percent62.53 pounds
18 percent63.29 pounds
19 percent64.07 pounds
20 percent64.88 pounds
21 percent65.70 pounds
22 percent66.54 pounds
23 percent67.40 pounds
24 percent68.29 pounds
25 percent69.20 pounds
26 percent70.14 pounds
27 percent71.10 pounds
28 percent72.08 pounds
29 percent73.10 pounds
30 percent74.14 pounds

Table 6
Moisture conversion for grain sorghum

Percent moisture in grainGrain sorghum equivalent to 56 pounds of grain sorghum at 13 percent moisture
10 percent54.13 pounds
11 percent54.74 pounds
12 percent55.36 pounds
13 percent56.00 pounds
14 percent56.65 pounds
15 percent57.32 pounds
16 percent58.00 pounds
17 percent58.70 pounds
18 percent59.41 pounds
19 percent60.15 pounds
20 percent60.90 pounds
21 percent61.67 pounds
22 percent62.46 pounds
23 percent63.27 pounds
24 percent64.11 pounds
25 percent64.96 pounds
26 percent65.83 pounds
27 percent66.74 pounds
28 percent67.67 pounds
29 percent68.62 pounds
30 percent69.60 pounds

Calculating other conversion factors

These conversion tables cover the most widely grown crops and the most common moisture contents. When you need other conversions, the calculations are relatively simple.

Use percent dry matter in making conversions because the problem is to obtain the same weight of dry matter as is found in a standard bushel. For example, a standard bushel of wheat contains 60 pounds at 13.5 percent moisture. Thus, 86.5 percent dry matter (100-13.5) x 60 pounds = 51.9 pounds of dry matter.

Example
How many pounds of 20.5 percent moisture wheat is equivalent to a standard bushel?

13.5 percent Standard Moisture Content = 100 - 13.5 = 86.5 percent Dry Matter

20.5 percent Moisture Content = 100 - 20.5 = 79.5 percent Dry Matter

86.5 ÷ 79.5 = 108.8 percent

(108.8 x Standard Bu. Wt. (60 for Wheat)) ÷ 100 = 65.28 pounds equivalent to a standard bushel

To check your answer:

65.28 x 79.5 percent dry matter = 51.9 pounds of dry matter

Table 7
Common measures and approximate metric equivalents

  • 1 liquid teaspoon = 5 milliliters
  • 3 liquid teaspoons = 1 liquid tablespoon = 15 milliliters
  • 2 liquid tablespoons = 1 liquid ounce = 30 milliliters
  • 8 liquid ounces = 1 liquid cup = 0.24 liter
  • 2 liquid cups = 1 liquid pint = 0.47 liter
  • 2 liquid pints = 1 liquid quart = 0.9463 liter
  • 4 liquid quarts = 1 liquid gallon (U.S.) = 3.7854 liter

Table 8
Conversion factors for metric and English units

Length

  • 1 mile = 1.609 kilometers
  • 1 kilometer = 0.621 miles
  • 1 yard = 0.914 meters
  • 1 meter = 1.094 yards
  • 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
  • 1 centimeter = 0.394 inches

Area

  • 1 square mile = 2.59 square kilometers
  • 1 square kilometer = 0.386 square miles
  • 1 acre = 0.00405 square kilometers
  • 1 square kilometer = 247.1 acres
  • 1 acre = 0.405 hectares
  • 1 hectare = 2.471 acres

Volume

  • 1 acre-inch = 102.8 cubic meters
  • 1 cubic meter = 0.00973 acre-inches
  • 1 quart = 0.946 liters
  • 1 liter = 1.057 quarts
  • 1 bushel = 0.352 hectoliters
  • 1 hectoliter = 2.838 bushels

Weight

  • 1 pound = 0.454 kilograms
  • 1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds
  • 1 pound = 0.00454 quintals
  • 1 quintal = 220.5 pounds
  • 1 ton = 0.9072 metric tons
  • 1 metric ton = 1.102 tons

Yield or rate

  • 1 pound per acre = 1.121 kilograms per hectare
  • 1 kilogram per hectare = 0.892 pounds per acre
  • 1 ton per acre = 2.242 tons per hectare
  • 1 ton per hectare = 0.446 tons per acre
  • 1 bushel per acre = 1.121 quintals per hectare
  • 1 quintal per hectare = 0.892 bushel per acre
  • 1 bushel per acre (60#) = 0.6726 quintals per hectare
  • 1 quintal per hectare = 1.487 (60#) 1 bushel per acre (56#) = 0.6278 quintals per hectare
  • 1 quintal per hectare = 1.597 (56#)

Temperature

  • To convert Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C): 0.555 x (F - 32)
  • To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: (1.8 x C) + 32

Table 9
Mixing small quantities of liquid spray. The first column represents concentration of active ingredient per gallon; the second column provides corresponding amount to mix for 1,000 square feet to get 1 pound per acre of active ingredient

Concentration of active ingredient per gallonAmount to mix for 1000 square feet to get 1 pound per acre of active ingredient
1 pound7 tablespoons or 103 milliliters
2 pounds3.5 tablespoons or 51.5 milliliters
3 pounds2.3 tablespoons or 34.3 milliliters
4 pounds1.7 tablespoons or 25.8 milliliters

Checking planting rate or stand per acre

This table may be useful in checking actual planting rate when planting a crop. It can also be used in obtaining stand counts.

Determine average spacing in inches between seeds (or plants) in the row. Then divide the appropriate figure in the right hand column by this figure to determine planting rate (or stand).

Example
Grain sorghum planted in 30-inch rows is found to average 2.5 inches between seeds.

209,088 ÷ 2.5 = 83,635 seeds being planted per acre.

Or the grain sorghum stand averages 1 plant per 3.5 inches of row. Then 209,088 ÷ 3.5 = 59,379 plants per acre.

You can use this method without the table as long as you remember that there are 43,560 square feet per acre and that 144 square inches = 1 square foot.

43,560 x 144 = 6,272,630 square inches per acre.

Divide 6,272,640 by inches of row width to obtain inches of row per acre (6,272,640 ÷ 30 = 209,088).

Row spacingInches of row per acre
40 inches155,682
38 inches165,069
36 inches174,240
30 inches209,088
28 inches224,023
24 inches261,360
20 inches313,632
18 inches348,480
15 inches418,176
14 inches448,046
12 inches522,720
10 inches627,264
8 inches784,080
7 inches896,091