Nutrient Requirements of Swine

Courtney A. Boren and Marcia S. Carlson
Department of Animal Sciences

Feed is the largest single item among the costs of producing pork. Pork producers should adopt a comprehensive feeding program based on sound nutrition principles and tailored to a specific operation. This guide provides the basis for such a feeding program.

The nutrient requirements presented in Tables 1-6 are adapted from the 1998 edition of Nutrient Requirements of Swine compiled the National Research Council (NRC) [Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th revised edition. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press]. The NRC values are thought of as minimum requirements without any safety allowances; therefore, the NRC requirements should not be considered as recommended allowances.

The recommendations for Missouri swine producers are similar to those made by professional swine nutritionists throughout the swine industry and are in close agreement with recommendations of other Midwest universities. All Missouri nutrient recommendations equal or surpass the NRC requirements (1998). These nutrient recommendations are influenced by cost, genetics or expected performance of pigs, herd health, facilities, and general management on a Missouri swine operation. Swine producers should keep in mind that while it is common practice to formulate diets on the basis of an amount per pound or per ton, pigs require given amounts per day. This becomes important where such animals as replacement gilts or gestating sows are fed limited amounts per day.

Table 1
Nutrient requirements for growing pigs fed ad libitum (90 percent dry matter).

NRC recommendations Missouri recommendations
6 to 1010 to 2020 to 4545 to 110110 to 180180 to 265Live weight (pounds)6 to 1010 to 2020 to 4545 to 110110 to 180180 to 265
0.350.61.11.51.81.7Expected gain (pounds per day)0.350.61.11.51.81.7
Percent in diet Percent in diet
2623.720.91815.513.2Crude protein272622.518.51614
0.900.800.700.600.500.45Calcium0.900.900.800.700.550.55
0.700.650.600.500.450.40Phosphorus (total)0.800.800.700.600.500.50
0.550.400.320.230.190.15Phosphorus (available)0.600.550.400.300.210.21
0.590.540.460.370.270.19Arginine0.590.540.460.370.270.19
0.480.430.360.300.240.19Histidine0.480.430.360.300.240.19
0.830.730.630.510.420.33Isoleucine1.020.900.780.630.510.39
1.51.321.120.900.710.54Leucine1.51.321.120.900.710.54
1.51.351.150.950.750.60Lysine1.71.51.31.050.850.65
0.860.760.650.540.440.35Methionine + Cystine0.940.830.720.580.470.36
1.411.251.060.870.700.55Phenylalanine + Tyrosine1.411.251.060.870.700.55
0.980.860.740.610.510.41Threonine1.110.980.850.680.550.42
0.270.240.210.170.140.11Tryptophan0.310.270.230.190.150.12
1.040.920.790.640.520.40Valine1.040.920.790.640.520.40

 

Table 2
Missouri recommended nutrient additions per ton in grow-finish diets.

 Additions per ton
NutrientUnitGrower period, 10 to 135 poundsFinisher period, 135 to 260 pounds
Salt (NaCl)pounds3 to 63 to 6
Irongrams150125
Zincgrams150125
Manganesegrams3025
Coppergrams1512.5
Iodinegrams0.270.27
Selenium*grams0.270.27
Vitamin Amillion international units65
Vitamin Dthousand international units900750
Vitamin Ethousand international units2520
Vitamin Kgrams2.52
Riboflavingrams5.44.5
Niacingrams3025
Pantothenic acidgrams1815
Vitamin B12milligrams2520
*Maximum legal addition is 0.27g per ton (0.3 ppm)

Table 3
Nutrient requirements of breeding swine (90 percent dry matter).

NRC recommendations Missouri recommendations
Boars
(sexually active)
Gestation
(440 pounds with 12 pigs)
Lactation
(385 pounds with 0.44 pounds per day gain)
NutrientsBoars
(sexually active)
Gestation
(440 pounds with 12 pigs)
Lactation
(385 pounds with 0.44 pounds per day gain
Percent in diet Percent in diet
5.04.012.0Daily feed intake (pounds)5.04.012.0
131217.5Crude protein2013.519
0.750.750.75Calcium0.900.900.90
0.600.600.60Phosphorus (total)0.800.800.80
0.350.350.35Phosphorus (available)0.500.500.50
  0.48Arginine  0.48
0.190.160.36Histidine0.190.160.36
0.350.300.50Isoleucine0.350.300.50
0.510.420.97Leucine0.510.420.97
0.600.520.91Lysine1.050.651.0
0.420.360.44Methionine + Cystine0.420.360.60
0.570.491.0Phenylalanine + Tyrosine0.570.491.0
0.500.430.58Threonine0.550.480.72
0.120.100.16Tryptophan0.140.130.20
0.400.340.76Valine0.400.441.0

 

Table 4
Missouri recommended nutrient additions per ton in gestation, lactation, and boar diets.

NutrientUnitBreeding Stock
Salt (NaCl)pounds10
Irongrams150
Zincgrams150
Manganesegrams36
Coppergrams15
Iodinegrams0.27
Selenium*grams0.27
Vitamin Amillion international units10
Vitamin Dmillion international units1.5
Vitamin Ethousand international units40
Vitamin Kgrams4
Riboflavingrams9
Niacingrams50
Pantothenic acidgrams30
Vitamin B12milligrams40
Biotinmilligrams200
Folic acidgrams1.5
Cholinegrams500
Pyridoxinegrams13.75
*Maximum legal addition is 0.27g per ton (0.3 ppm)

Table 5
Partial composition of feeds commonly used in swine rations (90 percent dry matter).

FeedstuffCrude protein percentEnergy (ME) Kcal per poundCalcium percentTotal phosphorus percentAmino acids
Lysine percentMethionine + Cystine percentTryptophan percent
Corn U.S. #28.31,5540.030.280.260.360.06
Grain sorghum9.21,5180.030.290.220.340.10
Wheat11.51,5000.040.390.380.490.26
Oats11.51,2320.070.310.400.580.14
Soybean meal (44 percent)43.81,4450.320.652.831.310.61
Soybean meal (48 percent)47.51,5360.340.693.021.410.65
Meat and bone meal51.51,0119.994.982.511.180.28
Fish meal (menhaden)62.31,5275.213.044.812.340.66
Alfalfa meal178321.530.260.740.430.24
Dicalcium phosphate*  20 to 2418.5   
Monocalcium phosphate*  1721.1   
Limestone*  35.840.01   
*Check actual values on feed tags

Table 6
Energy composition of selected fats-oils-carbohydrates.

FeedDry matter percentEther extract percentLinoleic acid (18:2) percentDigestible energy (Kcal per pound)Metabolizable energy (Kcal per pound)
Lard10010010.23,7663,614
Poultry fat10010019.53,8733,718
Beef tallow1001003.13,6363,490
Choice white grease10010011.63,7683,616
Corn oil100100593,9803,820
Soybean oil100100513,9773,818
Corn starch990.2201,8181,811
Sucrose99001,7251,652
Marcia Carlson is a state extension swine nutrition specialist. Courtney Boren is a graduate research assistant in animal sciences.